Sea water along the equatorial area gets heated by the sun, and the warmed water forms a stratification layer above the colder lower water. Eastern Trade Winds caused by Earth’s rotation and atmospheric temperatures push this water layer, creating the Global Ocean Conveyor Belt (GOCB).
Part of this GOCB is The Gulf Stream.
The warm water reaches the North Atlantic and Labrador areas, where heat is lost to the atmosphere, mixes with cold water, and sinks. These actions form the North Atlantic Gyre, also known as the Sargasso Sea. As the cooled water sinks, warmer water replaces it, enhancing the GOCB and the Gulf Stream current. The cooled water forms a deep-water channel flowing south, under the Gulf Stream, along the eastern South American and Antarctic coasts, to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Other gyres in the major oceans are also formed and act to further energize the GOCB by the current created by the flowing warm-to-cold water actions.
The GOCB facilitates heat transfer among the ocean’s seas and atmosphere, thus modulating global warming.
Increased global carbon levels, through various actions, are causing global warming. Also increasing are the depths of various heat-stratification layers, lessening the heat transfer efficiencies among these layers; the GOCB warm layer is one of these layers.
The heat of the atmosphere is increasing, lessening the amount of heat transferrable from the oceans to the air. This causes the upper warm ocean layer to both get warmer and get thicker. The lowered water-to-air heat transfer effectively slows the water cooling, slowing the decent of cool water to the deep water current of the GOCB, thus slowing the Gulf Stream.
The slowed current allows the trade winds to push the Gulf Stream closer to the North American continental shelf and its shallow water, lessening the cooling effects from the cool, deeper water layer. The water thus gets warmer, the warmer water expands, and sea levels rise along the coastline. Due to the Gulf of Maine’s configuration and placement, ocean warming and sea level rise is especially egregious in New England and Maine.
Adding to this is the fresh water from increased river flowage from increasingly severe storms and the melting of polar caps, ice sheets and glaciers. Fresh water is less dense than sea water so tends to stay at the surface, further increasing the depth of the upper stratified layer of warm water, further decreasing heat transfer actions.
Recent research indicates that the GOCB has been reduced by 15-20% since the mid-1800…the surge of the Industrial Revolution, fossil-fuel burning, and its carbon-releasing effects. Evidence from research of ancient ice cores also suggests that the GOCB is at its weakest point in the past 1600 years.
Most folks have difficulty relating to the scientists’ warnings relating to climate change due to global warming. A University of Maryland study, with funding from National Science Foundation and U.S. Geological Survey, attempts to clarify these temperature changes. The image above shows our climate just a short 60 years from now, if our governmental policies remain the same. Go to the below interactive map, designed by the researchers of this paper: https://rdcu.be/bXACi.
Interactive map: https://fitzlab.shinyapps.io/cityapp/
On a recent Saturday morning, folks from the Sanford/Springvale Rotary Club and the Sanford/Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust teamed up to install improvements on a trail that follows the western shore of Deering Pond, which is in the Trust’s Hall Reserve in Springvale. Three bridges and two boardwalks will help keep walkers’ feet dry during their walks through this peaceful and historic area just a couple of miles from Springvale Square.
The Rotary Foundation awarded their local Club a grant, which will also be used to install new trailhead signs, nature interpretative placards along the trail, and a colorful brochure to help folks enjoy the area. The Trust thanks the Rotary Club for their initiative in this community-oriented collaborative effort to build civic awareness and outdoor public activities.
by Gordon S. Johnston, Professor of Biology, Nasson College, August, 1973
Updated November, 2019
I first saw the pond in the company of students John Holzapfel and Sidney Korn on a cold January morning in 1966. It was an impressive introduction for the ice was groaning. Strain cracks were streaking across the ice from one side of the pond to the other, accompanied in their passage by groaning and renting sounds. During the years 1967 to 1978, with the help of innumerable students, I have witnessed the progress of the seasons at the pond, probed its shores, plumbed its depths, and reflected on its past. Of all of the things that we have learned about the pond, the one aspect that is most meaningful to me is that I now comprehend Henry Thoreau’s love and fascination for Walden Pond. To me, Deering Pond is another Walden.
That body of water presently known as Deering Pond came into existence sometime before 13,350 years ago during the retreat of the Wisconsin Glacier1. The basin in which the pond lies was gouged out of the metamorphic rocks of the Rindgemere formation by earlier glacial advance2. As the ice mass melted, a depression ringed with glacial debris and paved with rock flour was left behind to catch water flowing from the hills and ridges in the vicinity. The original depth of the basin has not been ascertained, but superficial investigations suggest that it must have been at least seventy-five feet deep with a water level several feet higher than at present. Such was the birth of Deering Pond.
Within a short period of time, the inevitable aging process which afflicts all standing bodies of water commenced. The shallowing process was heralded by the arrival of Sphagnum moss and the growth of plants in the marginal water of the western shore. The growth of these plants was encouraged by the acidic minerals in the surrounding till and bedrock, while at the same time, decay of the organic material was retarded. Consequently, peat, the product of partially decayed organic material, gradually began to accumulate and fill the basin. Analysis of a peat core made by an ecology class in the fall of 1972 indicates that acid-loving diatoms were present quite early in the history of the pond and have predominated ever since. This substantiates suspicions that Deering Pond was predisposed to rapid filling.
The first human to view the pond undoubtedly was an Indian for early maps of the area give the name of the pond as Tombegewoc3. Huden4 states that this is an Abenaki word meaning “place of the rocky reef in the pond”. The presence of boulders at or below the water surface support this description. On the other hand, Eckstom5 contends that the word signifies “rapids” and refers to a rapid on the outlet. Since the stream leaving the pond flows smoothly for some distance, this translation does not seem to apply. Whatever the case may be, the Indians apparently were familiar with the pond and utilized its fish and plants.
There is no available record concerning the first colonist to view the pond. Abraham Preble passed within a half mile of it in 1720 when he was establishing the boundaries of the township3. However, he probably did not see the pond owing to the tree growth which existed at the time. John Deering inherited the land surrounding the pond from his grandfather who previously was granted the land by the Crown for his services in the French-Indian War of 1693. William and Gideon Deering, sons of John, settled about one mile northwest of the pond around 1789. Hence, the pond, Deering Ridge, and the Deering Neighborhood are named for his family. Under a colonial ordinance made at the time Maine was part of the Colony and Province of Massachu- setts Bay, the State of Maine today has jurisdiction over the pond itself.
The presence of stonewalls and barbwire fences indicates that most of the land around the pond was eventually cleared. Rev. Ilsley6 reports in 1872 that the largest mast pines in the State were cut on a lot west of Deering Pond and that the stumps were still present at that time.
Human activities up until the years of 1870-1871 apparently had but little influence upon the pond. However, the construction of the Portland and Rochester Railroad (later the Sanford and Eastern) brought about significant alterations in two original sources of water to the pond3.
On the southwest side of the pond, the railroad grade was built across three boggy areas which formally were part of the pond in 1871. Drainage from a marsh to the present pond was blocked, but not without retribution. At the first of these boggy areas, a flat car, standing by itself sank out of sight overnight at the foot of the pond in May of 18713.
On the southwest side of the pond, the grade intercepted the third area that had an inlet stream. The stream flowing from Hanson’s Ridge was diverted into a ditch on the south side of the grade while the former mouth became an outlet of the pond flowing down the north side of the same grade. These modifications of the drainage patterns almost a century ago probably lowered the water level of the pond and stabilized it against seasonal oscillations. In turn, the new water level favored more rapid filling of the basin with organic material.
Mr. A. J. Rollins of Nasson College secured interesting documentation of the railroad construction in the form of an increment boring taken in 1971 from a large red maple that was growing adjacent to the railroad grade. As a seedling, it had established itself when the land was cleared. For several years it grew vigorously until it was crowded and shaded by other trees that also had invaded the site. It grew slowly for approximately a half a century until 1938, at which time vigorous growth was renewed. Apparently, the hurricane of 1938 blew down the surrounding trees allowing the red maple to stretch in the sunshine.
Within the last sixty years, logging operations and a fire in 1953 have occurred on both the eastern and western sides of the pond. The creation of logging roads may have lowered the water level of the pond somewhat, but this was offset by beavers building a dam on the major outlet in the early sixties. These beavers vanished around 1967 and the pond level fell again. In 1971, the beavers re-colonized the pond and established the present day water level. Both the fire and logging have left their marks in the form of mosaic patterns of vegetation that are in various stages of succession.
Present Day Conditions
The land around the pond was owned by Nasson College from 1972 to 1983. It was designated as the Russell Environmental Study Tract in honor of Mrs. Ina Russell who purchased the land from Veterinarian Dr. Ralph Vigue and donated it to the College. The area served as a wildlife preserve, an outdoor classroom, and as a “green space”. In 1999 the Hall family of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who purchased it at auction, donated this property to the Sanford Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust. Today The Hall Environment Reserve at Deering Pond is a signature holding of the Sanford Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust with the Sanford Railroad Trail on the south, the much improved Vigue Trail on the east, and the Hazen Carpenter Trail circling the west and the north.
Deering Pond has a surface area of twenty-six acres, a shoreline of approximately 0.8 of a mile, and an average depth of 7.5 feet. The bottom, which is composed of unconsolidated colloidal ooze, is fifteen-feet below the surface at its deepest point. This ooze has the remarkable property of forming a gel upon prolonged exposure to the air. In the course of a field trip some years ago, a bucket of sediment was brought back to campus. Somehow the bucket was overlooked for the better part of a year. When it was finally discovered, the contents had acquired the characteristics of “Jello”. Even though the bucket was turned upside down, the gel remained in place.
Microscopic examination of the pond sediment has revealed an abundance of diatoms, pollen grains, and sponge spicules in a matrix of granular colloidal floc. Less common components of the sediment include pieces of plant debris and the exoskeletons of insects. On the basis of preliminary study of the microbiology of the sediment, it appears that floc-forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Zooglea, Flavobacterium, and Achromobacter, among others are responsible for the production of vast quantities of colloidal floc present in the basin7. In addition, Sarcina and a species of green sulfur bacterium have been tentatively identified in sediment samples.
Chemical analysis of the sediment has revealed that more than 56 tons of calcium, 1,300 pounds of potassium and magnesium, and 250 pounds of phosphorus are deposited within the sediment. Moderate amounts of nitrogen particularly in the ammonia form have been detected. The pH of the material ranges from 4-5 and, thus far, has proved to be uniform throughout the sediment mass.
The characteristics of the sediment outlined above indicate that this material exerts a prevailing influence upon all living organisms found within the basin. Suspended colloidal material and liberated tannic and humic acids impart a tea color to the water and reduce the depth of light penetration. The average secchi disc depth is around 7 feet.
Furthermore, these materials maintain the acidity of the water which retards, but does not inhibit, the decay activity of micro-organisms. Consequently, near the bottom of the sediment, dissolved oxygen is virtually exhausted while the carbon dioxide level is quite high, a situation that favors the activity of anaerobic organisms such as the reducing and sulfur bacteria which release methane and hydrogen sulfide respectively.
Because nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, etc. are either bound within the undecomposed matter on the bottom or precipitated out of solution in a colloidal complex, the concentration of dissolved substances in the water is extremely low. Thus, the following limiting factors are imposed upon organisms:
1. A low pH; 2. Low nutrient levels; 3. Low dissolved oxygen levels; 4. Warm water temperatures (summer).
Flora and Fauna
The limiting factors listed above constitute what is known as a dystrophic condition8, 9. Since these factors limit the variety of organisms which can exist, the flora and fauna of bog ponds are impoverished. A partial biotic inventory of Deering Pond is listed below.
Aquatic Plants and Animals
Phytoplankton – quite abundant and relatively diverse: Blue-green algae; Green algae – particularly desmids; Euglenoids; Dinoflagellates; Golden algae – particularly diatoms, that are most abundant.
Zooplankton: Protozoans – particularly sarcodinids; Rotifers – most abundant; Water fleas – particularly Daphnia & Bosmina.
Copepods – particularly Cyclops
Periphyton – attached forms: Blue-green algae – particularly Nostoc; Green algae; Red algae – particularly Batrachospermum; Sponges; Rotifers; Bryozoans.
Worms – flatworms, oligochaetes, and leeches common
Molluscs – quite rare
Insects – mature and immature forms:
Orders: Odonata – dragon and damsel flies; Hemiptera – water bugs; Trichoptera – caddis flies; Diptera – flies and mosquitoes.
Reptiles – mostly regional turtles – particularly painted and snapping.
Amphibians – frogs quite abundant, a few salamanders.
Fish – warm-water species: Suckers, Shiners, Yellow Perch, Minnows, Sunfish, Bullheads, Pickerel, Small-mouth bass introduced in the 1980s.
Floating Aquatic Plants – water lilies, water shield, floating heart, and bladderwort.
Emergent Aquatic Plants – spike rushes and cattails
Bog Plants and Animals
Plants and animals of the bog proper are quite interesting because they represent a subarctic assemblage that is tundra-like9. Bog soils and sphagnum moss are poor conductors of heat. Consequently, such soils or areas covered with sphagnum moss are generally colder than surrounding soils or areas. The following zones or plant communities are present (cf. Figure 3):
Sphagnum mat and heath – at margin of water: Insectivorous plants, Sphagnum moss, Leather leaf, Bog rosemary, Sweet gale, Cranberry (large and small-fruited species), Cotton grass, Orchids, Bog aster, Buttonbush, Purple pitcher-plant.
Shrub: Sheep laurel, Rhodora, Winterberry, Speckled alder, Mountain holly, Bebb’s Willow, Black spruce, Highbush blueberry, Black chokeberry
Woodland: Red spruce, Red maple, Hemlock, Yellow birch, Black gum (rare), Red Spruce.
Animals are not very abundant in a bog and many animals that are found in this habitat do not live there. Some of the animals that have been observed or captured in the bog are:
Spiders and ticks
Insects: Midges, Blow flies, Crane flies, Pitcher plant mosquito, Bumblebees.
Birds: Oven bird, Water thrush, Great blue heron, Marsh hawk, Coot, Tree swallow.
Rodents: Snowshoe hare, Meadow vole, Deer mice, Bog lemming, Water shrew, Red-backed vole
Eventually Deering Pond will pass from existence and be replaced by a wet woodland. The rate at which this transformation occurs will depend upon the activities of man and beavers. Additions of sewage or septic tank effluent will provide nutrients which are presently lacking. Algal blooms and rapid accumulation of organic material will result from this enrichment. The continued presence of beavers will ensure higher water levels which retard the rate of shallowing and bog mat encroachment. At the same time, their activities will protect the bog from fire damage.
Well-meaning people have, at various times, suggested that the filling process could be delayed by either chemical treatment or dredging. On the surface such actions to preserve the pond seem reasonable. However, chemical treatment or dredging undoubtedly would have serious side effects. With respect to chemical treatment, clarification of the water would encourage extensive growth of the littoral vegetation which is presently limited in extent by low light levels at its outer edge, while destruction of the sediment floc would release large quantities of dissolved substances that could create downstream problems as well as encourage the growth of littoral vegetation.
On the other hand dredging would result in the deposition of a considerable quantity of colloidal ooze in some appropriate place. In view of the unique properties of this material, disposal of it would be a technological challenge.
The fact that the pond is destined to vanish three or four thousand years from now is saddening. However, it is the natural scheme of things on the grand scale of time.
1. Neil, Craig D., 1997. Surficial Geology of the Sanford 7.5Minute Quadrangle, York County, ME. Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-70. A radiocarbon age on the bottommost organic sediment was 13,350 +/- 75 years.
2. Hussey, A. H., 1962. The Geology of Southern York County, Maine. Special Geological Study Series, No. 4, Dept. of Economic Development, Augusta, Maine.
3. Prosser, A. L., 1968. Sanford, Maine: A Bicentennial History. The Sanford Historical Society, Sanford, Maine. Note: David Parent, Superintendent of the Sanford Water District, and Gordon Johnston located the actual position of the car with a magnetic pin detector. Journal Tribune, October 4, 2018.
4. Huden, J. C., 1962. Indian Place Names of New England. Museum of American Indians, Heye Foundations.
5. Eckstorm, F. H., 1941. Indian Place-names of the Penobscot Valley and the Maine Coast. The Maine Bulletin, XLIV (4).
6. Ilsley, G. B., 1872. Sanford. In Atlas of York County, Maine: 367. Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, 1880.
7. Dohrman, M. E., 1972. Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from Deering Pond. Reading and Research Manuscript.
8. Daubenmire, R., 1968. Plant Communities: A Textbook of Plant Synecology. Harper and Row, Inc., New York.
9. Deevey, Edward S., Jr., 1951. Life in the Depths of a Pond. Scientific American, 185:68-72.
Various glacial actions carved a basin into ancient bedrock. About 14,000 years ago, meltwater from the last retreating glacier lined this basin with “rock flour”, a fine-grained silt made from the glaciers grinding away at the bedrock and suspended in the runoff. As the water collected in the basin, the silt settled, forming a layer over 50 feet deep. This basin still collects flowage from the surrounding ridges forming a pond.
Over time, water level decreased and plants colonized the area. Acidic minerals in the glacial till both encouraged growth of acid-loving plants and slowed decay of organic matter. Thus began the ongoing formation of a spongy peat bog along the shoreline, and the resultant tannin-rich water formed by the settled, acidic silt and slowly decaying organic matter. In centuries to come, the pond will evolve to a peat bog.
A 324 acre lot was granted to John Lydston in 1744 for his services in the Indian wars, including braking his thigh in the War of 1693. Subsequently inherited by the Deering Family of Old Kittery, family members settled about 1 mile northwest of the pond, thus becoming the Deering Area, containing Deering Ridge and Deering Pond. Evidence suggests that this land was occasionally logged, probably used as pastureland, and that the largest mast pines in the State were cut west of the pond; the stumps were still visible 150 years ago.
A railroad was built through a boggy area of the pond in 1871, separating the pond from 2 other parts; these parts formed an unusual wetland, now protected by the Trust. A flat car used to haul construction materials was left there overnight and sank into the bog, where it now sits about 14’ deep under the Rail Trail. Various local families came to own the land, and was eventually bought by Mrs. Ira Russel, who donated it to the former Nasson College; known as The Russel Environmental Study Tract, it served as a wildlife preserve and outdoor laboratory. In 1983, Nasson closed, the land was sold at auction to the Hall Educational Foundation, which sold much of a large strip along Deering Neighborhood Road to PATCO, a local construction company, which built houses there. The remaining land was donated to the Trust.
1. The Natural History of Deering Pond, by Dr. G. S. Johnston, August, 1973
2. Hall Environmental Reserve, Property Description, Sanford/Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust, website: https://mousamwaylandtrust.org/2017/05/23/hall-environmental-reserve/
From: UMaine Cooperative Extension’s “Maine Home Garden News”, October, 2019 https://extension.umaine.edu/gardening/2019/10/01/maine-home-garden-news-october-2019/
After acquiring what is now known as The McKeon Environmental Reserve, the Directors of the Mousam Way Land Trust endorsed the concept to plan and build a community ecology center. The David and Linda Pence Community Ecology Center, named after the generous folks who put the fundraising for Reserve property acquisition over the top, will include an Environmental Center where folks can hold meetings; a small workshop for making bird nesting boxes, bat houses, informational signs, and other eco-oriented projects; an environmental library, attuned towards school kids; an ADA-accessible outdoor restroom; an industrial-sized greenhouse; and a nursery to propagate various plants for the Nature Trail and other ongoing projects:
But I was asked to talk about another facet of the Eco-Center and the Reserve: The Sanford Community Garden.
Public outreach and environmental awareness being leading tenets of Mousam Way Land Trust’s operational directives, the Reserve’s field next to a barn, and a windmill-styled hand water pump connected to a very productive drilled well both sparked a vision within the prescient-minded Dr. Bud Johnston, Trust co-founder and long-time President. “Let’s build a community garden, an offering sorely lacking in the Sanford area.”
Recruiting public involvement is always an agenda item when Trust projects begin, and this was no different. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Master Gardener Volunteers (MGV) from York County worked with Bud to plan, design, budget, source materials, solicit other volunteers, build, and maintain Sanford Community Garden.
It was very quickly realized that substantial financing would be required, so Dr. Bud got to work researching grant possibilities and doing the quiet and tedious work of grant writing. Generous donors, organizations, and local businesses answered Bud’s call for help; and the Maine Master Gardener Development Board answered mine!
With sufficient funding, it was shopping time. A neighbor’s recently rehabbed portable sawmill and his abundant hemlock trees became the planks that formed the 27, 4-foot by 12-foot raised beds. A neighboring town’s sawmill supplied the composted soil, which tested perfect for the garden’s use. Deer fencing, posts, tools, water supply materials, nuts, bolts, screws, landscape fabric … we had plenty of toys to play with! “Playtime” began with a friendly plumber removing the old hand pump and installing a pressurized system, using the electrical service available in the barn. Trenches were dug, lines and cable run, and garden hose manifolds designed, built, and installed. The annual United Way Day of Caring (UWDOC) organization found some energetic folks to work alongside some pre-enrolled raised bed gardeners and Trust members in Maine’s rocky soil, driving heavy steel fence posts and digging deep holes for the corner and gate posts, which were expertly fashioned by experienced carpenters that just happened to be among the UWDOC folks. Unbelievable, right!
While the posts and gates were being placed, Master Gardener Volunteers (you thought they just grew plants, right!?) joined others to assemble the heavy, 10-inch-high raised beds in neat rows, and line them all with landscape fabric. A helpful neighbor drove his tractor from his farm through some of the Reserve’s 2 1/2 miles of woods trails to help fill the beds with rich soil as they were built. Yet even more volunteers raked the soil level in the beds as some volunteers’ kids played in a huge, 1/8 acre “sandpit” — actually a foundation for the donated greenhouse yet to be installed — blessed again by generous donors, but that’s a story for another time.
Anyway, the raised beds are built, filled with soil, surrounded with an 8-foot-tall, high-tensile steel deer fence tightly stretched around steel and wooden posts, 5-foot-wide gates are swinging open for access, wood chips from the on-going city road building project are spread along the fencing perimeter and between beds, and hundreds of seed packets and rather sickly-looking plants donated from local businesses were placed in the hands of excited gardeners.
Well, the sickly plants survived MGV-rehab wonderfully and, along with hundreds of seeds now sprouting and plenty of watering hoses to keep them all happy, we are also growing a bustling community garden. Some beds are assigned to folks who have been granted waivers due to financial challenges (the Trust asks for a $25 donation to help cover operational and maintenance costs); some are being tended by supervised adults with disabilities; some are under the watchful eyes of a local school’s food-for-kids program; others are tended by Master Gardener Volunteers for local food pantries. A few have gone unassigned and are sprouting buckwheat cover crop sown to enrich the soil even further.
Next spring, we won’t be waiting for the soil to thaw and dry to allow trucking it to a waterlogged, impassable road (did I mention that we needed to rebuild and gravel a couple hundred feet of road to allow access to the garden area?). And with the water supply available, we expect gardeners to fill up all the beds and are anticipating a waiting list. The future is bright and bountiful!
Baby Boomers, Gen-X’ers, Millennials, Gen-Z’ers are terms describing generational groups. Boomers frequently heard the singing of the whip-o-will, enjoyed streets lined with elm trees, and catching brookies in local streams. Gen-X’ers witnessed Dutch Elm devastate their streets; few Millennials are found who’ve heard the whip-o-will’s singing; the Gen-Z’ers’ brook trout have disappeared from their local streams. Environmental degradation levels increase with each generation, and each generation describes their observations as “the norm”, and thus compared today’s environmental condition with the memories of their youth. Rare is the elm without dead branches, and citizens rally to preserve it. “I just heard a whip-o-will!” is excitedly posted on social media, for those rare moments when the whirring nighttime song is heard. Week-long fishing trips “up north” are needed to “catch your limit” of the once common brookies.
In “The Once and Future World,” journalist J.B. MacKinnon cites records from recent centuries that hint at what has been lost: “In the North Atlantic, a school of cod stalls a tall ship in midocean; off Sydney, Australia, a ship’s captain sails from noon until sunset through pods of sperm whales as far as the eye can see; Pacific pioneers complain to the authorities that splashing salmon threaten to swamp their canoes.” There were reports of lions in the south of France, walruses at the mouth of the Thames, flocks of birds that took three days to fly overhead, as many as 100 blue whales in the Southern Ocean for every one that’s there now. “These are not sights from some ancient age of fire and ice,” MacKinnon writes. “We are talking about things seen by human eyes, recalled in human memory.”
So the current environmental condition is perceived as being normal. Historic conditions were normal for their times, but much different than now. “Shifting Baseline Syndrome” describes the bias inherent with the many “normal” comparisons related to natural trends. For example: during my youth, several whip-o-wills were commonly heard nightly; my kids heard maybe a few a month; my grandkids listened to them a few times in their lives. But each generation considers the whip-o-will population as being normal, but it’s actually rapidly decreasing. This results in the increasing levels of environmental degradation being accepted as the new normal.
Recent studies describing diminished species levels and lowered conditions of their health are beginning to highlight this phenomenon. Not until we step back a bit and peer into history do we realize the destruction happening, albeit in slow motion. It’s the Boiling Frog fable happening for real, to every living thing…Earth included. 80% insect declines in less than 3 decades; 29% bird decline since 1970; scientists describe the world-wide amphibian decline as an ongoing mass extinction event; the ocean’s phytoplankton populations and health are both declining, adding to Ocean Acidification and baseline food chain depletion…BASELINE FOOD CHAIN DEPLETION.
Scientists have been warning us that definitive actions of unprecedented levels are required to address this global warming emergency. It’s our world, current policies are destroying it, and the world-wide collective scientific community has something to say. Not listening, not planning, and not acting is not an option.
The Carbon Cycle
At the beginning of the Archean Eon 4 billion years ago, life emerged upon Earth in a process called abiogenesis; ie., “origin of life”. Several evolutionary processes at the molecular level of increasing complexity formed various chemicals in the early ocean, which led to cellular processes like self-replication and membrane formation. Bacteria eventually evolved and began adding oxygen to the existing volcanic gaseous atmosphere. (For a time, the bacteria went a bit crazy, creating “The Great Oxygenation Event”). Fungi, plants, and animals evolved…some crawling onto land. Plants took root, making homes for the evolving insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. At the atomic level of all this is carbon. Carbon loves to bond with other elements, and is the best element able to form the long chains needed for complex molecules, like DNA. So, Earth is host to carbon-based life…
…and The Carbon Cycle.
Living things breath. Plants “inhale” carbon dioxide, add water, and with the sun’s energy use a process called photosynthesis to make sugars. The plant “exhales” oxygen. The plant grows, using up atmospheric carbon. The plants get eaten by animals. Their life processes…breathing, waste-production…release the carbon back into the air and soil. Plants and animals die, get eaten by carrion eaters and macro- and micro-organisms, releasing more carbon. The remaining soil-based carbon is sequestered for 100’s of millions of years, forming reservoirs of peat, coal, oil shale, natural gas, and oil deposits.
Atmospheric carbon also dissolves into the oceans, which hold up to 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere. The tiny plants of the oceans, phytoplankton, eat some of the carbon via photosynthesis. Other things eat the plankton, other things eat the other things, etc.; all these things eventually die, drifting to the ocean bottom. The layers of sediment form an organic-rich mud and the pressure compresses it into organic shale and limestone. Through millions of years the layers continue to sink. Heat and pressure transform the shale into oil shale. Oil percolates from the shale, upwards through the other relatively porous layers and groundwater, until it meets a solid rock layer. Thus, another method of carbon sequestration. Carbon also get stored in the rock layers thus formed. This is all naturally in balance….
…WAS naturally in balance.
The actions of anthropogenic (human) activities…burning of carbon-based materials (fossil fuels) removed from the sequestered carbon reservoirs…releases carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2 which disrupts the carbon cycle in ways severely detrimental to human existence, and the existence of most other things.
Let’s begin with the air we breath.
Land-based plants and the oceans are currently managing to take up about 80% of the carbon generated anthropogenically (by humans). The rest stays in the atmosphere for thousands of years. Scientists have found that CO2 causes 20% of Earth’s greenhouse effect, water vapor 50%, and clouds 25%; other things make up the rest.
Earth’s atmosphere is a thin blanket of gases and tiny particles where water vapor levels are controlled by temperature: higher temps equal more water. CO2, and other materials, heats the air by absorbing solar energy then releasing it. So as CO2 atmospheric levels rise, water concentrations increase due to the increase in temps. The increase in water concentration adds to the greenhouse effect, further increasing temps, further increasing water levels, further increasing the greenhouse effect, etc. The Earth is heating up on a global scale: Global Warming.
As carbon enters an environment, it combines with tiny water droplets to form carbonic acid. As the air cools, retained water get released it as rain..all precipitation begins as rain…and the rain holds the aforementioned carbonic acid, adding to the acid caused by other pollutants, creating “Acid Rain”. Acid rain disrupts plant growth and aids in mineral breakdown. As rock is degraded, the carbon stored there 100’s of millions of years ago gets released, adding more carbon to the Earth’s carbon cycle. So of all the greenhouse gases, CO2 is the gas that regulates the Earth’s temperature more than any other, thus controlling the both size of Earth’s Greenhouse Effect and the speed of Global Warming. And Earth’s atmosphere is getting wetter, creating closer ties with the oceans.
The Oceans, you say?
As carbon as CO2 enters the oceans, the carbonic acid created is soon converted into bicarbonate, lowering the ph level and, worldwide, causing Ocean Acidification. Higher atmospheric CO2 levels are causing an increase in these actions, resulting in an increase in species mortality; various sea creatures suffer depressed metabolic and immune response rates. Oysters, clams, and shallow and deep sea corals experience higher mortality rates.
Plankton, the basis of the ocean food chain, which happens to add 50% of Earth’s oxygen to our air, also suffers. Studies have shown negative effects of ocean acidification on plankton. Zooplankton species have calcium-based protective “shells” which do not properly form in an acidified environment. Phytoplankton photosynthesize and need chlorophyll; chlorophyll health suffers in an acidic solution. Some species of phytoplankton cannot survive in acidic and warm environments…and that’s what’s now happening. So, plankton diversity may decrease and species’ population will redistribute as they adapt to changing conditions. The implications of population redistribution and decreased diversity will disrupt the ecosystem and the food chain in ways now not fully understood.
So, we’ve disrupted the carbon cycle, adding atmospheric carbon faster than the normal carbon cycle can address it. Acid Rain, Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming, Climate Change, Ocean Acidification, Bug Die-Off, Diminished Species: all terms coined in my generation. The latest term?…
The Sixth Extinction
Five mass extinction events during the past 540 million years have happened, all involving worldwide extermination of marine species over the course of thousands to millions of years. Each event was preceded by major changes in Earth’s carbon cycle…a change we currently seem to be experiencing. Some scientists point to carbon cycle data suggesting that the sixth event may very well be happening now. The difficultly is that previous cycle data have spanned thousands or millions of years, while the current data base involves only a century or so. The magnitude of our current carbon cycle needs deeper study…
…which has been done.
Daniel Rothman, professor of geophysics in the MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and co-director of MIT’s Lorenz Center, has published an article in Scientific Advances, identifying “thresholds of catastrophe” in carbon cycles which, if exceeded, would lead to an increasingly unstable atmosphere, and as his data shows, mass extinction.
Rothman found that the critical rate for catastrophe is related to a process within the Earth’s natural carbon cycle, in which organic carbon sinks to the ocean bottom and is buried and becomes sequestered. If this rate of natural sequestration is exceeded by carbon being added to the cycle…by burning fossil fuels for example…the carbon cycle becomes unstable.
His study shows that historic mass extinction follows if one of two carbon cycle thresholds are crossed: long cycles with relatively slow carbon level changes that happen faster than Earth environments can adapt; and short cycles with a relatively quick, high level change. The latter change is what we are now experiencing; excess carbon circulating through the oceans and atmosphere, resulting in global warming and ocean acidification.
His study indicates the crossing of the carbon threshold by 2100, using projections in the most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC considers various politically-enacted carbon emission-limit policy scenarios in their models, which all show that by 2100, the carbon cycle will either be close to or well beyond the threshold for catastrophe.
“This is not saying that disaster occurs the next day,” Rothman says. “It’s saying that, if left unchecked, the carbon cycle would move into a realm which would be no longer stable, and would behave in a way that would be difficult to predict. In the geologic past, this type of behavior is associated with mass extinction.”
“When the caterpillar is a full grown fifth instar caterpillar it is ready to molt the fifth time to become a pupa, or chrysalis. The caterpillar will begin to wander until it finds an appropriate place to create its chrysalis. It will lay down a silk mat, like it has every time that it has molted before. But this time it will spend time creating a small wad of silk–a silk button—in the middle of its mat. When it is ready it will grasp the silk button with it last prolegs and hang upside down. This is called hanging in “j.”
See more pictures and read more here:
In 1939, mining engineer Oliver Bowles estimated 259,000 miles of stone walls have been built in New England. Damage from theft, strip-mining for commercial sale, and demolition for housing construction has left about 100,000 miles, according to the Stone Wall Initiative, https://stonewall.uconn.edu/# (from which most of this entry is gleaned). Re-building these iconic land forms causes archaeologic sites to be changed into modern architecture, resulting in the loss of cultural significance. A bit of saving grace is that many stone walls are described within property deeds, in which boundaries are memorialized by the wall’s locations…giving them monument status and a bit of protection from removal. Some folks realize the benefits of stone walls and have enacted state laws and municipal ordinances for their protection and considerations.
So, what about stone walls? How’d the stones get there? Where’d they all come from? Well, comets and asteroids containing ice formed from space dust and slammed into each other, eventually forming Earth. Ice turned to water thanks to the Sun and collected into a great ocean. Polar caps formed and glacial periods followed. Back-and-forth glacial movements along with erosion from winds and rains eroded Earth’s surface, dumping rocks everywhere. The glaciers were very generous with the New England area! The settlers needed someplace to set the rocks they cleared for their crops, so walls served to denote field boundaries and helped to contain livestock.
But another creation is offered by these structures…habitat!
The stone provides a surface upon which lichens will live. Lichens provide an inviting substrate for various mosses, ferns, and trees to root; black birch are especially fond of beginning their lives within a mossy world. These rock-loving plants provide the little bugs upon which many returning birds rely to recuperate from their migrations, and which help sustain other, over-wintering creatures: turkey and other birds, various amphibians…and the animals that eat them!
Cats, squirrels, and foxes use them as travel lanes, and the extra elevation helps them spot prey, or predators. Endangered Blanding’s turtles migrate to breeding sites along stone walls, where the leaf litter provides moisture and there’s more protection from predators. Chipmunks and white-footed mice are attracted by the protection, while mink, snakes, foxes, and owls await their emergence. Stone walls literally make our landscape come alive, creating a keystone habitat and the basis for a food chain.
Stone walls create their own ecosystems. Being attached to, and rising from, the soil and earth, summer’s heat and winter’s cold are tempered, easing the effects of temperature extremes on the many reptiles and amphibians that make their home within the walls protective stones. The base is cool and moist, the crevices like tiny caves; the top…warmer, drier, and more barren. One side might be woods, the other field. Many animals are attracted by the diverse habitat made by the redirection of winds, affording protection on the leeward side. Snow pack and rainwater drainage is heavier on the uphill slopes, causing soil run-off to be deposited there thus providing a rich growing medium for plants to thrive on one side, and not quite so much on the other side; Often there will be shade-loving plants and sun-loving plants on either side. These habitats create a diverse ecosystem throughout the length of the wall, strengthening the overall health of the surrounding landscape.