By Kevin McKeon
On a recent warm November day, as part of its directives of preserving special places and maintaining critical habitats, Mousam Way Land Trust worked with the Sanford Trails Committee and a generous donor to complete a project along Sanford’s Rail Trail.
Spring time typically brings snow melt and spring rains, causing water runoff; with that, beaver get busy repairing and building up their dams to hold back, or impound, water for summer storage. This creates the habitat that the beaver need to survive. This activity has often resulted in the water at Deering Pond to rise to a level where overflow has caused erosion to wash out a section of Sanford’s Rail Trail.
In an effort to mitigate this costly issue, Skip Lisle was contracted this past summer to install a flow device of his own design, called a “Beaver Deceiver,” at the pond’s outlet, where culverts were installed years ago and where beaver have since been active in damming the culverts, greatly slowing the outlet flow and causing the erosion. This particular Beaver Deceiver installation will act to protect the culverts from becoming dammed, while also allowing the beaver to impound enough water for the pond to maintain its traditional healthy habitat. Concurrent with this install, the Rail Trail was re-engineered to a higher level at the area subject to erosion, and a secondary overflow culvert installed.
Realizing this new culvert would attract beaver damming activity, Skip returned months later and donated his time, his materials, and most importantly, his expertise in beaver knowledge, and installed another Beaver Deceiver to protect this new culvert. Working with volunteers from the Trust and Committee, Skip has helped to ensure that the Rail Trail remains intact for the community’s use, that the resident beaver population will continue their instinctive water-based activities, and that Deering Pond will be maintained at a biologically healthy level in support of the myriad of flora and fauna within the pond’s surrounding landscape.
Skip has solved beaver damming issues world-wide with his devices, which are site-specific and custom made for each site’s particular issues. He’s been doing this for decades, applying the knowledge gained over the years to allow beaver, a “keystone species” to build and maintain their valuable habitat while mitigating the damage that can be caused by uncontrolled water-level rises affecting human properties. Mousam Way Land Trust thanks Skip for sharing his expertise, hard work, and leadership in safeguarding the hundreds of beaver habitats his flow devices have enhanced.
Continued climate warming will disrupt our forests and their ability to lessen the impact of high CO2 levels. We will lose our cool adapted evergreens and hardwoods which ,in turn, will change the nature of the forest and everything in and around it. The Mousam Way Land Trust is initiating a project to plant warm adapted southern tree species on our reserves in anticipation of this radical change. In time these southern replacements will become part of the forest and restore some balance.
You are invited to help us go one step farther by planting these replacements in your own landscape from which they will eventually spread. If you become a member of our land trust or make a donation, you will receive a collection of five different species of seedlings to plant. You also may choose to have the land trust plant them in strategic areas. The selected species are attractive shade trees and most provide food for wildlife: Redcedar, Bitternut Hickory, Tulip Tree, Hackberry, and Bald Cypress. They all will do well in ordinary garden soil where they receive sun most of the day. Bald Cypress also will grow in wet soil with sun.
To help with this project, click here to donate , or complete our membership form by clicking here. If you prefer to use a check, make it payable to MWLT, fill out the form below. In either case you will be advised by email about receiving the seedlings so please provide your email address.
YES, I WANT TO SUPPORT THIS PROJECT
Name __________________________________ Phone _________________________
o Single Membership $25; Family $40; Corporate $100
o Donation $_____________ In honor/memory of __________________________________
o I will plant them. You will be contacted when they are available.
o Please plant them on land trust property to benefit our future. We will let you know when they are planted.
Mail to: Mousam Way Land Trust, 917 Main Street, Suite B, Sanford, Maine 04083
A few 4-ft by 12-ft beds are available for those who would like to raise their own vegetables, herbs or flowers. There is no fee for a bed and all gardening materials and tools are supplied. Each gardener must volunteer six hours of their time caring for the food pantry beds over the course of the season. To reserve a bed, complete the application below. Questions can be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sanford Community Garden
The David and Linda Pence Community Ecology Center and
The McKeon Environmental Reserve
Hosted by: Sanford/Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust
Managed by: Patty and Kevin McKeon, University of Maine Extension York County Master Gardener Volunteers
Sanford has a community garden where those who lack access to suitable land can grow their own organic vegetables, flowers, and herbs. The Sanford Community Garden is located at the Pence Community Ecology Center in the McKeon Environmental Reserve on Blanchard Road in Springvale.
The purpose of this enterprise is to have an enjoyable, healthy, and successful experience. We will work with you to ensure this happens. We ask that you think of your gardening neighbors and the garden while working there.
The tool shed will serve as a communications center. Notices will be posted, along with the garden guidelines, and lists of approved organic soil amendments, pesticides, and herbicides. Master Gardener Volunteer (MGV) contact information and a message board are posted there to ask for advice or to report any issues.
You’ll be encouraged to use the square foot gardening procedure developed by Mel Bartholomew as a means of getting the most out of a limited space, but you can use whatever layout you want. By the same token, certain species and varieties will be recommended based on experience. Again, you may choose your own. In any case, the point you should keep in mind is that the size of the bed places a limit on how many types of plants you can grow.
The 4 X 12 foot, 10 inch high raised beds will be assigned plots on a first-come, first-served basis. Gardening space will be reserved and posted for local food pantry benefit, and all gardeners will be expected to tend these areas; watering of food pantry plots and produce distribution will be done by MGV.
Gardening tools, fertilizers, watering hoses and nozzles, produce cleaning sink, ADA-accessible outdoor restroom, and table and chairs are available for gardeners and their guests to use. Master Gardeners will provide advice and help, if needed; They will also oversee the general operations of Sanford Community Garden.
Applications for available beds will open in March. Applicants are expected to read, understand, and obey the General Policies, Rules, Waiver, and Photo Release as described on the application. Applications and Waivers must be completed, signed, and returned to the Master Gardeners to be considered for bed assignments. The Community Garden Advisory Board has final determination of all aspects of the Sanford Community Garden.
Using a plot at the Sanford Community Garden is a privilege; the Advisory Committee reserves the right to revoke the privilege of any gardener at any time for any reason it deems appropriate.
Application For Garden Plot Sanford Community Garden
Name: _______________________________________ Phone: _________________________
Mailing address: ______________________________________________________________________ Zip: ________
Email: _________________________________ (We will use this only to communicate with you.)
General Rules and Waiver Contract
I agree to waive, release, and hold harmless Sanford Springvale Land Trust, York County Cooperative Extension Service, and Master Gardener Volunteers from any and all damages, claims, suits, or injuries. By using the Sanford Community Garden located at Blanchard Road in Springvale, I assume responsibility for all risks, damages, to self or personal property and hazards, including ant third parties I may bring onto said property, for the purposes of gardening or otherwise. Insurance coverage is my own responsibility. I agree to act in a safe, sensible, and responsible manner, and will use respect with property and other people while at the garden. I also understand and agree to follow garden rules and policies.
I have read and understand the General Rules and Waiver Contract. I understand that my signature here is an acceptance of the General Rules and Waiver, and I agree to abide by them.
Signature: ________________________________________ Date: ______________________
At times during the spring and summer, folks from Kennebunk Savings Bank and the Sanford Community Garden Advisory Committee will be visiting to take pictures of you and your family for publicity purposes. Please complete the release form below to indicate your permission if you do not mind photographs being taken of you and your family.
_____ It’s ok to take pictures as described above.
Signed:_______________________________________________ Date: ______________________
Return this application form to email@example.com , or deliver to Master Gardener Volunteers (MGV) Kevin & Patty McKeon, 246 Blanchard Rd., Springvale, ME, 04083. Questions can be directed to MGV, Kev: 207-206-5934; Patty: 207-206-5933.
Another of many wonders happening at the 3 Rivers Land Trust, Mousam Way Land Trust, and Sanford Trails collaborative land conservation project. 13,000 or so years ago, melting glaciers dropped large rocks called “erratics” onto the ground. Lichen, a 1/2 plant 1/2 animal, symbiotic thing, formed from algae and fungal stuff and attached to the erratic. The lichen lived and fed by injecting rock-dissolving acid into the rock, spreading over the erratic’s surface. Moss spores, carried by the wind, landed on the lichen and began to grow. The moss created a rich, moist place for the seed of a tree to sprout. This sprout spread its roots along the now moss-covered rock, reaching to the surrounding soil and anchoring and feeding the growing tree. This series of events resulted in this large black birch for us to ponder! More about Black Birch here: https://www.facebook.com/notes/the-mckeon-reserve/black-birch/1840941949309346/
Kennebunk Savings recently provided a donation of over $3,000 to the Sanford-Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust in support of its new and already-expanding community garden. The bank has been a partner on this project from the beginning, with donations totaling over $18,000 since the initial purchase of the land.
“Land is a precious resource in Maine,” said Bradford C. Paige, Kennebunk Savings president and CEO, in an email. “It’s why we all live here – the beauty of the natural landscape, the bounty of our natural resources. Preserving it and, just as critically, fostering an appreciation for it in future generations is an awesome responsibility.”
In 2017, the Sanford-Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust purchased a plot of “ecologically significant” land on Blanchard Road. The 72-acre parcel of mostly former logging trails contained significant habitat for life forms in need of protection and conservation.
“We fell in love with the land because of its very diverse nature,” said Bud Johnston, the trust’s director, in an email.
Many of the state of Maine’s sensitive habitats are impacted by local development – even the areas protected by shore land zoning. The desire to protect them for future generations of humans and wildlife alike has led to the formation of land trusts, legally bound to preserve these areas forever. The Mousam Way Trust owns just over 800 acres in Sanford and Springvale.
When the former owners of the parcel on Blanchard Road subsequently donated an additional 38 acres – including an existing barn, an outdoor restroom and a deep well left intact by the previous owners – Johnston saw an opportunity to take a more active role in fostering appreciation and preservation in the community. To Johnston, this additional land suggested a new community center and garden.
The Pence Community Eco-Center, named in honor of frequent and significant donors David and Linda Pence, broke ground in 2018. A community garden, with gardening plots available at low-to-no-cost for low income families, was established alongside the Eco-Center. Initially, a $25 fee was set for use of a bed, but after 80 percent of applicants met the qualifications to have the fee waived last summer, it was eliminated.
A large plot was set aside for the trust’s work with the Sanford Backpack Program, which sends nutritious food home with food-insecure school children over the weekends. The need was greater than anticipated, and so the community garden is now expanding – by adding an additional 2,000 square feet, they will be able to yield 1,000 pounds of vegetables each year.
Kennebunk Savings’ initial donation was a $5,000 matching grant to support the purchase of the land. Traditionally, matching grants are offered for a period of several months, but the funds were matched by private donations within just a few weeks. The bank later donated $10,000 for the construction of the gardens, and then over $3,000 for expansions. A team of volunteers from the bank also painted the bathrooms.
“We have been thrilled with the results so far,” said Johnston. The community gardens added a waiting list this year, and on the plot of initially purchased land, relatively uncommon spicebush plants were discovered. The shrub is the only source of food for the larval stage of the spicebush swallowtail butterfly, which were soon seen flitting around the community gardens. Spicebush swallowtails were last seen in Maine in 1934.
Since 1994, Kennebunk Savings has set aside 10 percent of its annual earnings for local charities. Since then, Kennebunk Savings’ charitable giving has exceeded $14 million, including over $1 million in 2019 alone. In 2020, the bank has shifted and stretched its giving guidelines to assist many organizations in weathering the difficulties created by the COVID-19 pandemic, and was named a “COVID-19 All Star” by the Kennebunk-Kennebunkport-Arundel Chamber of Commerce.
The Sanford Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust is a nonprofit, community-oriented organization dedicated to the permanent protection of local land for the benefit of the public and future generations as well as providing livable habitat for present and future generations of humans, plant and animal life in the Sanford area. It does this without cost to the town through public education and protection of significant natural resources, farmland, historic areas and scenic vistas and by working with landowners who seek to protect their land through conservation easements or by transfer of deed to the land trust.
A trails connection between Blanchard Road in Springvale and Sanford City’s Rail Trail was recently competed. This long-awaited, joint effort between Sanford Trails Committee and Sanford-Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust connects non-motorized trail users to the 2 ½ miles of trails on the McKeon Reserve from the 5 ½ mile Rail Trail. This project also results in a joint agreement between the City and the Trust that permits city maintenance vehicles access to the ½ mile of Rail Trail previously inaccessible due to the narrow footbridge over Branch River. More importantly, Fire, Emergency, and EMT vehicles will be enabled, and response times will be greatly improved.
York County Coast Star, August 6, 2020
SPRINGVALE, Maine – For years, beaver dams have caused flooding after high watershed events along the Rail Trail abutting the wetlands of Deering Pond, but the installation of a new device on site is expected to help resolve the issue for decades to come.
Skip Lyle, the founder and owner of Beaver Deceiver International, traveled to the community on July 30 and worked with Kevin McKeon and Steve Mallon, both of the Sanford-Springvale Trails Committee, to install one of Lyle’s custom-designed flow-control devices at Deering Pond’s culverts within the Hall Environmental Reserve. Lyle, of Grafton, Vermont, is a conservationist, builder, biologist, inventor and entrepreneur.
“My goal is to protect any threatened property while at the same time maximizing ecological and hydrological value,” Lyle said.
The Rail Trail, a popular stretch of the community’s vast network of paths, has often flooded and washed away as a result of a culvert-clogging beaver dam that causes Deering Pond’s water level to rise after a storm or a spring runoff.
The Sanford-Springvale Mousam Way Land Trust, the Sanford Trails Committee, and the Sanford ATV Club joined forces to resolve this ongoing conflict between human and beaver, in a way that protects the environment of Deering Pond within the reserve and maintains the integrity of the Rail Trail.
According to McKeon, the three groups used to take a “caveman style” approach to the issue, occasionally sending members to the site to clean out the culverts – a task that needed to be done as often as two or three times a week during the high-water season of spring.
“A subcommittee was actually formed to rotate volunteers!” McKeon said.
Now, thanks to one of Lyle’s Beaver Deceivers, the issue has been resolved in a way that’s a win-win for humans and those busy little dam builders.
A typical Beaver Deceiver is “either a rectangular fence that protects the upstream opening of a culvert or a trapezoidal fence that is narrow at the culvert and widens upstream,” according to Lyle’s website. Each device is custom built to suit the site .
“It fools the beaver into thinking that they’re creating a dam to hold back the water,” McKeon explained. “But in reality, the water is going through.”
McKeon said beavers instinctively build dams wherever they hear or sense water flow.
“If they hear it, if they see it, if they feel it, they will try to stop it,” he said. “They can’t help themselves. It’s a natural thing that they do.”
Lyle said his devices are effective anywhere between 30 and 40 years and are a more practical, long-term and humane alternative to trapping and killing beavers.
Trapping in the area also is risky for the trappers themselves, McKeon noted.
“This is a peat bog,” he said. “Unless you know the area pretty well, you could be walking along the shore of Deering Pond and all of a sudden you could find yourself chest-deep in muck. It’s a pretty dangerous area for trappers to be trapping.”
The entire installation of the Beaver Deceiver cost about $2,900, according to Trails Committee Chair Lee Burnett. The committee will cover the expenses, with hopes of being reimbursed through the state’s Municipal ATV Grant program, Burnett said.
Mousam Way Land Trust funded a video production of the installation as part of the organization’s goal of increasing the awareness of how people exist within their environment, McKeon said. WSSRTV, the broadcast station out of Sanford High School and Regional Technical Center, produced the video and is currently editing it for availability soon.
McKeon said another culvert – which this time would be installed underneath the Rail Trail – is also a component of the overall solution recommended by Lyle. The Beaver Deceiver solves the flooding issue at the existing culvert, but not the one at the Rail Trail. Under certain circumstances, water washes over the Rail Trail when its level rises not just in Deering Pond but in its attached wetlands, as well.
“Currently, we didn’t know that that was going to be needed, and that is under discussion among the Trails Committee members,” McKeon said. “It’s a pretty inexpensive solution, even if it proves that it’s not really required. It’s a pretty good guarantee that the water wouldn’t go over the Rail Trail and erode it there. It would go underneath, through the culvert, to the ditch on the other side that carries water now.”
While the Beaver Deceiver addresses the negative issues related to the beavers and their dams, it also allows the animals’ work to continue. Lyle said he, McKeon and Mallon installed a “starter dam” at the Beaver Deceiver to encourage beavers to construct there to “build up the pond.”
Lyle and McKeon said this will help ensure the continuation of a healthy ecology at the site – a habitat for birds, critters, plants and more that are healthy for them and an attraction for those who enjoy nature.
About 370 million years ago, the first animals crawled out of the oceans to live on land. Known as amphibians (“two-lives”: amphi ‘both’ + bios ‘life’), they still require water for part of their life cycle. Beginning their life in water with gills and tails, they later develop lungs and legs for their life on land. They are also “cold-blooded” and assume a body temperature equal to their surrounding environment; warming themselves by basking in the sun and cooling down by lounging in a pool of water. Their thin, moist skin allows them to “breath” air and “drink” water, but also results in their drying out easily, so they don’t venture very far from a water source or damp environment, like Vernal Pools.
Vernal Pools are special bodies of water, having no inlet or outlet, and are unable to sustain some aquatic predators, such as fish and some invertebrates. They are also readily found throughout the landscape; anywhere a depression exists, a pool of water likely forms for a short period. These pools can also be a variety of sizes; be it as large as a permanent wetland and several feet deep, or only a few square meters with inches of water, it seems nearly any pool size will suffice a breeding amphibian. (Click here for more info on Vernal Pools.).
Certain early-spring conditions trigger a massive migration, when our ancient amphibians travel from their woodsy homes to Vernal Pools to breed. When the snow melts and the ground thaws, and temperatures rise above 45°, on a very wet night—either rainy or very foggy—“The Big Night” event happens. This event sometimes happens during a single night, but often over several nights. Vernal Pools become swelled with the snow-melt and wet weather, and our amorous crawlers are answering the call to procreate!
Their travels back to their breeding waters often require them to cross roads, and upwards of 30% of our frog, toad and salamander friends are killed by human road traffic…each time they cross the road. And they need to cross twice: once to get to the pools and once to return to their woodsy homes. Of the near 8,000 described amphibian species, almost half are in decline. According to a recent International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List report, over a quarter of amphibians are currently at risk of extinction, making them one of the most threatened groups of animals on the planet.
Hope does exist, however. A small yet fast-growing movement involves citizens throughout the northeastern US who have been taking notice of the challenges migrating amphibians face as they attempt road crossing. “The Big Night” project focuses on recruiting volunteers to go out into the warm rainy nights of spring to monitor key migration points on roads. Not only are volunteers assisting amphibians in crossing roads, they are also collecting valuable data that could help to both detect critical crossing points and increase habitat connectivity areas.
While driving along roads, many of us are accustomed to swerving around those amphibians that we can see, and also help them cross when we stop. The Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT) has noticed the dangers motorists thus create; single and multiple road accidents are being tabulated along with road damage. The evidence shows that as folks instinctively try to avoid needlessly killing these creatures, the costs of accident responses and road repairs are mounting. So MDOT is partnering with The Big Night project, Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, and other parties to design and build amphibian crossings into new road construction projects as a known cost-saving actions.
Walk along a woodland stream and the occasional sight of a glob of foamy stuff comes into view. So where does this sudsy-looking stuff come from?
Stream foam is most common during periods of heavy rain and snow melt. Surface water mixes with topsoil rich in organic matter like leaves and twigs. The organic matter contains naturally-occurring chemicals called “surfactants”: materials that reduce surface tension in water. The surfactants become mixed with the water runoff much like the flavor of tea leaves become infused into the water in your teacup. Surfactants act to make water easier to spread or “more wet”. Soap is the most common surfactant we use, acting to ease cleaning operations; it allows water to “stretch”…and to form bubbles.
As the stream’s water flows over branches and rocks it becomes oxygenated, a major source of atmospheric oxygen mixing into our global waters feeding fish. Bubbles are formed and, due to the decreased surface tension from the surfactants, these bubbles become persistent and are somewhat stabilized. The bubbles congregate in areas of the stream called eddies—where the shape of rocks, branches, and other stream structors cause a circular flow of water to persist in a given spot.
There are, however, some materials like detergents and yes, soaps, that can also cause foam, but these foamy areas will usually be found near houses or drainages areas from parking lots. So if you’re out in the woods and are so inclined, scoop up some stream foam and give it a smell test! It may have an earthy, fresh-cut grass or fishy scent.
There’s another naturally-occurring foam caused by something different. Found along shorelines and beaches, “foam-lines” are caused by the seawater mixing with decaying matter from certain microscopic creatures called algae. Some of this algae can be harmful and the release of air from the collapsing bubbles from these algae can cause eye irritation and breathing difficulties to those with asthma and respiratory issues. Some sea birds can become affected by the damage to waterproofing oils on their feathers, making flight more difficult and compromising survival.